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For many homeowners, the water heater is a vital but often overlooked appliance. It sits in a corner of the basement or utility room, tirelessly ensuring you have hot water for showers, laundry, and dishes. However, like any other appliance, water heaters require regular maintenance to operate efficiently and last longer. Here’s a primer on basic water heater maintenance tasks every homeowner should be familiar with.

1. Regularly Check the Temperature and Pressure Relief Valve (T&P Valve):

The T&P Valve is a safety device that releases excessive pressure and prevents the tank from exploding.


  • Turn off the power and cold water supply valve.
  • Place a bucket under the discharge pipe and lift the valve’s tab to let out some water.
  • If water doesn’t flow or continues to flow after releasing the tab, you’ll need to replace the valve.

2. Set the Right Temperature:

For optimal performance and energy efficiency, set your water heater’s thermostat to 120°F (49°C). This setting can prevent scalding and save on energy costs. Remember, always turn off the electricity to the heater before adjusting the thermostat.

3. Drain and Flush the Tank:

Over time, sediment can build up in the tank, reducing heating efficiency and shortening the lifespan of the heater.


  • Turn off the heater, electricity, and water supply.
  • Connect a garden hose to the drain valve and direct the other end to a suitable drainage spot.
  • Open the drain valve and let the water empty out, clearing the sediment.
  • Once drained, close the drain valve, turn on the water supply to fill the tank, and then restore power.

4. Insulate the Heater and Pipes:

Insulating your water heater tank and pipes can save energy and reduce heating costs. For electric heaters, use an insulation blanket. For gas heaters, ensure you don’t block the heater’s air intake, thermostat, or top. Insulate the first few feet of the hot and cold water pipes connected to the heater.

5. Regularly Check for Leaks:

Inspect your water heater periodically for any signs of leaks or dripping water. If you notice moisture or puddles, identify the leak source and fix it promptly. Often, it may be from the fittings or connections, but sometimes it could indicate a more severe problem, like a corroded tank.

6. Clean the Air Intake (For Gas Heaters):

Gas water heaters need a steady airflow for combustion. Over time, the heater’s air intake can get clogged with dust and debris.


  • Turn off the heater.
  • Locate the air intake, typically situated at the heater’s base.
  • Use a vacuum cleaner or soft brush to clear away any debris.

7. Annually Test the Anode Rod:

The anode rod attracts corrosive elements, protecting the tank from rust. Depending on your water quality, this rod may corrode over time.


  • Turn off the power and water supply.
  • Unscrew the anode rod from the top of the tank.
  • If it’s less than 1/2 inch thick or coated with calcium, replace it.

8. Adjust the Temperature According to Usage:

If you’re going on vacation or know you won’t need hot water for extended periods, lower the thermostat to save energy. Remember to turn it back to its regular setting once you resume regular use.

9. Ensure Proper Venting (For Gas Heaters):

Gas heaters produce exhaust that needs venting outside.


  • Regularly inspect the venting system for any blockages or leaks.
  • Ensure there’s a cap on the exterior vent to keep debris and animals out.

10. Inspect the Burner (For Gas Heaters):

A well-functioning burner will have a steady blue flame. If you notice yellow flames or soot, it indicates incomplete combustion and the need for a professional inspection.


Regular maintenance of your water heater can enhance its efficiency, extend its lifespan, and ensure your safety. While many tasks can be performed DIY, it’s always beneficial to have a professional technician inspect your unit annually for optimal performance. Remember, an ounce of prevention is worth a gallon of hot water!